A Guide to Kidney Stones: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Everyone has heard of kidney stones, either because you have had them yourself or because you have witnessed a close family member or friend develop them. And one thing that everyone can agree on is that they hurt! 

The pain caused by something as small as a kidney stone is not easily forgotten. Kidney stones are a common occurrence. Over a lifetime, the ordinary individual has a 6 to 12% risk of developing one 一 and the numbers are rising. 

Before we get into how to prevent having kidney stones and its treatments let’s get a clearer understanding of what a kidney stone is and how they develop in the first place. 

What Are Kidney Stones? 

In simple terms, kidney stones are made up of waste/toxic substances that the body does not require. These toxins are generally eliminated by your kidneys in the form of urine. When there is too much waste and too little liquid, crystals/stones begin to form.

Kidney stones’ normal size resembles sand or gravel grains and sometimes, in extreme cases, it might be the size of a chickpea. And when the kidney tries to pass these stones, the pain experienced is unimaginable. 

You may be thinking that if you drink enough water and don’t let any type of crystal or stone develop, you can keep yourself safe. But it’s not quite that simple.

Types of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones mainly comprise four types:

Calcium Stones: 

They are the most common among Indians and are further made up of two types i.e., Calcium Oxalate and Calcium Phosphate. The former type is formed when the body excretes excess calcium and the latter one is formed due to the consumption of acidic foods i.e. when the pH level of the urine rises.

Struvite Stones: 

Struvite stones are not so common. They are majorly found in women and are formed due to a Urinary Tract Infection(UTI). Often, these types of stones are very painful as they grow large quite fast without any symptoms. However, these stones can be treated by treating the root cause of the stone i.e., Urinary Tract Infection.

Cystine Stones: 

They are formed due to the accumulation of cystine – a naturally formed compound in your body. Although rare and usually small in size, these stones can occur in both males and females. Cystine stones are formed due to genetics and hereditary disorders.

Uric Acid Stones: 

If your water intake is lower than normal, then you may develop Uric acid stones. As the name suggests, this stone is formed when the urine becomes acidic. If you are a fan of consuming a non-vegetarian diet, especially meats, fish, and shellfish, then you are at a greater risk of developing Uric acid stones.

Causes of Kidney Stones 

Medical research cannot explain why certain people are predisposed to kidney stones. We do know that they run in families, indicating a hereditary susceptibility to the disease. 

Other lifestyle and dietary reasons that cause kidney stones include 一 

  • Dehydration: 

If you do not drink enough water or sweat excessively, you are more prone to develop kidney stones because your body cannot make enough urine to dilute the crystals.

  • High-oxalate diet 

Oxalate is a chemical found in a variety of healthy meals and plant products. Calcium and Oxalate stick together during the formation of urine and could form crystals when there is not enough liquids to dilute it. So try avoiding high-oxalate foods like spinach, almonds, soy products, etc., if you already had a kidney stone. 

  • Table salt

Also known as sodium. Salty snacks, canned foods, packaged meats, and other processed foods with high sodium content increase your chances of developing a kidney stone. 

  • Animal protein

Uric acid levels in the body can rise as a result of eating excessive amounts of red meat and seafood. This can build up in your joints and create gout, or it might pass through your kidneys and form a stone.

These are only a handful of the many factors that have been linked to kidney stones. If you are concerned about kidney stones, it is always better to consult a doctor on how to prevent having kidney stones. 

Symptoms of Kidney Stones 

A kidney stone will normally not show symptoms until it reaches your ureters. When it gets stuck in the ureters, it can obstruct the flow of urine, causing the kidney to enlarge and the ureter to spasm, both of which can be excruciatingly painful. At this stage, you may notice the following symptoms:

  • Sharp discomfort in the side and back, just below the ribcage
  • Radiating pain to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes and goes in waves and varies in intensity
  • Pain or burning sensation while urinating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills

Seek immediate medical attention and make an appointment with your doctor before the pain gets intolerable. If you suspect you or your close family/friend might have kidney stones, make an appointment at  Ayu Health Hospitals. Staffed with the best of doctors and technology, we will provide you with the best quality care. 

What Are the Treatments for Kidney Stones

This is for you if you want to know how kidney stones are removed and what treatment was recommended for your family/friend who is soon to have theirs removed. If you prefer not to know the details skip over to the next section and find out how Ayu Health Hospitals 一 the best hospital for kidney stones can help. 

The type of treatment performed is determined by the size, location, and type of stone you have.

If the stone is tiny enough, you may be encouraged to drink more water to pass it without the need for surgery or other treatments. Larger kidney stones, as well as kidney stones that clog your urinary tract or cause severe discomfort, may necessitate immediate treatment.

Four major treatments can be employed to remove kidney stones when it does not pass on its own 一 

  1. Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

As the name suggests, Shock waves are used in this procedure to break up kidney stones into little bits. The little particles of the kidney stone will flow through your urinary tract and out of your body with your urine after the procedure.

This procedure typically takes 45 minutes to an hour and may be performed under general anaesthesia, which means you will not feel a thing. 

  1. Ureteroscopy 

In this procedure, the doctor uses a long instrument shaped like a tube to locate and remove the stone or to locate and shatter the stone into little pieces before allowing it to pass naturally.

This procedure is also performed under general anaesthesia and you will not feel any pain or discomfort. 

  1. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) 

In some situations, a procedure known as percutaneous nephrolithotomy is required to remove a kidney stone. To remove the stone, a tube will be put straight into your kidney through a tiny incision on your back. 

This treatment will require you to stay in the hospital for two to three days to receive and recover from.

  1. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)

RIRS is an endoscopic surgery that removes kidney stones by moving through the ureter into the kidney. The procedure treats kidney stones by using a viewing tube known as a fibre optic endoscope and a holmium laser fibre.

The procedure is performed under general anaesthesia and under the supervision of a RIRS specialist or urologist.

If you’ve ever had the traumatic experience of developing kidney stones, or if you’ve ever witnessed your loved ones suffer through the pain, make sure you’re prepared with all the knowledge you’ll need if it happens again. Ayu Health Hospitals has the best kidney stone hospitals in Bangalore. If you have any queries regarding the treatments or the cost of treatment contact us and we’ll assist you as soon as possible! 

How Can Ayu Health Hospitals Help?

We are India’s most trusted network of high-quality hospitals, and we have a team of pre-eminent urologists. We have successfully diagnosed and treated thousands of patients suffering from kidney stones.

Ayu Health Hospitals offer all modern treatments for kidney stones. Our highly trained urologists specialize in Lithotripsy, Ureteroscopy, and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy procedures. New age treatments (e.g., Laser RIRS) are encouraged wherever applicable.

For all procedures, Ayu Health Hospitals offer fixed price packages that are communicated before admission. These include all typical charges associated with surgery. Our intent is for you to focus on getting better, not hidden costs.

ChargesAyu HealthOthers
Hospital Admission / Registration ChargeYesNo
Operation Theater ChargesYesYes
Surgery Charges (includes surgeon fees, anaesthetist fees)YesYes
All pre-surgery testsYesNo
Hospital Stay beyond standard durationYesNo
Drugs consumed during the hospital stayYesYes
Zero additional charges at the time of dischargeYesNo

Ayu Health Hospitals offers a fixed price package for all surgical procedures

If you are looking for a leading urologist in Bangalore or Chandigarh who can treat kidney stones, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at https://ayu.health/bangalore/speciality/Urology-3 to learn more.

How to choose a Urology clinic / Urologist?

Patients suffering from urological issues often face difficulty finding a good urology clinic. Not any and every clinic can be optimal for your health problem. So, it becomes critical to choose a clinic that doesn’t let you wipe off your essential savings on ineffective treatments that cause no benefit to you. 

 Here’s a small guide that one can use to find the most suitable Urology clinic / Urologist for their ailment.


Factor affecting your selection 

  • Start with the referrals and patient testimonials

Referrals are an excellent way to select the best among all the clinics. Start with asking your general physician to suggest the urology clinics. If you don’t have a GP, ask your relatives, friends, and other healthcare providers for recommendations for the best urology clinic. 

Hearing about the experiences of the patients who were hospitalized for urological issues often help you gain a real insight into how the medical staff at the facility works. Also, you get to know about the doctors that they were operated or treated from. 

Some hospitals also organize camps / interactive sessions which involve both the urologists and recovered patients.

Online reviews can be beneficial as well in making a choice.

  • Look for credentials

An accurate diagnosis and treatment plan pivots on the experience and proficiency of the urologist.

Try to gain some insight into the expertise, experience, and credentials of the enlisted urologists. This includes knowing about their education, certification, and their history with treatment and surgeries. Years of experience, research publications, universities they have graduated from are all strong indicators of expertise.

  • Examine the infrastructure

The infrastructure of the clinics directly affects the success rates of the urology clinic, which is why you should always keep the basic amenities & facilities checklist while evaluating the clinic. 

Check for the dedicated laboratories, well-equipped operation theatres, modern instrumentation, and environmental control measures.

It’s said even small setbacks can hinder the entire treatment process leading to miserable happenings, so pay attention to little details. Accreditation by NABH, National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers, is a good sign in terms of evaluating all the parameters listed above.

  • Treatments available

Seek a urology clinic that offers a range of medical facilities and treatments under one roof. Try to gain insights into every therapy available at the clinic, along with their expenses. 

Go for a clinic that ensures that every urological surgery designed is tailored to your needs and background history.

  • Consider gender 

People suffering from urological issues often feel offended while opening about it in front of people and doctors. 

So, if you are one of them, don’t feel awkward, and while choosing the urology clinic, keep in mind which gender of the doctor will make you comfortable to share everything about your problem. Because if you are not able to do so, you may not get rid of the problem. 

  • Cost of treatment/insurance coverage

It is critical to always check medical expenses or surgery costs to get the treatment. Choose a urology clinic that participates in your insurance plan. It will help you receive various benefits and pay least out of your pocket.

If you have a health insurance policy, you want to make sure about what is covered and to what extent. As much as possible, choose a network hospital to avail of cashless hospitalization.


Choose Ayu Health

Ayu Health is India’s most trusted network of hospitals. Our in-house urology experts are among the best in their field and will suggest the most optimal urology treatment (surgical or non-surgical) for the patients depending upon their case. 

Also, our fixed-price policy and coverage of insurance don’t let you restrict yourself from getting treated because of the rising medical bill.  

Ayu Health hospitals offer all advanced and effective urology treatments. We not only have a skillful doctor’s team but also carry mandatory certifications from the government authorities. NABH, India’s premier hospital accreditation authority, recognizes all the AyuHealth hospitals.

Ayu Health also lets you clear your doubts before the decision making process by helping you consult with the finest and proficient doctors under whom your treatment process takes place.

If you are looking for a leading hospital and an expert doctor who can treat and perform the effective surgical or non-surgical urology-related treatment and suggest the best methods to get the procedure just right for you in India, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at https://ayu.health/bangalore/speciality/Urology-3


PCNL vs RIRS – Which is the right Kidney Stone procedure for you?

What are Kidney Stones?

Kidney Stones form due to the collection of salts and minerals on the inner lining of the kidney. Patients house different types of kidney stones that can be caused because of many reasons. 

Some kidney stones can pass through the urine depending on the size. The patients housing a kidney stone can suffer from other complicated problems which can ultimately damage the entire kidney. 


What is Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)?

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the process of removing the kidney stones that are present in the upper part of the ureter and the kidney. 

This process removes the kidney stones, which are more prominent and are unable to pass through urine on their own. The process starts with a small incision on the back to remove the kidney stone that is too big (more than two cms).


When is PCNL recommended?

Doctors after examining the patient’s body suggest them to undergo the PCNL surgery when he / she is diagnosed with the following conditions:

  • Stones have a larger diameter, typically >2 cm, although this number can vary on a case to case basis
  • Stones are likely to cause severe complications that may eventually result in kidney damage
  • There are multiple blockages in the collecting branches of the kidney
  • Kidney Stones migrate to the ureter
  • Failing of all other treatments

PCNL Procedure

The doctor starts with the surgery by making a small incision of 1cm in the patient’s flank area. Under the x-ray examination, the doctor places a tube into the kidney through the incision. 

The doctor inserts a telescope through the tube to have the visualization of the stone. Also, it breaks up the stones and removes them from the body of the patient. 

Also, the doctor may go for a laser to break the stones into smaller ones and get them removed from the patient’s body.

The process considerably results in less pain after the operation and has a shorter recovery period as compared to other kidney removal procedures. The patient need not stay for a longer time in the hospital and can continue with their daily routine. The hospital stay can be approximately 1-2 days depending on the patient’s condition.

Risks of PCNL Surgery

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Organ/ Tissue Injury
  • Incomplete removal of kidney stones
  • Chance of conversion to open surgery

What is Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery(RIRS)?

Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery is an endoscopic surgery that removes kidney stones by moving through the ureter into the kidney. 

The process uses a viewing tube known as fibre optic endoscope and a holmium laser fibre and cures the renal stones.  


Why is RIRS recommended?

Doctors suggest patients undergo the RIRS surgery if he / she is diagnosed with the following conditions:

  • The patient is housing a kidney stone upto a diameter of 2 cm, although this can vary across cases.
  • Non-opaque stones
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Presence of anatomic abnormalities (long lower pole calyx, acute IPA, narrow infundibulum)
  • Multiple kidney stones including nephrocalcinosis(when calcium levels increase in the kidneys)

RIRS Procedure

Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery removes the kidney stones using flexible ureterorenoscopy. The process begins by placing the scope or the viewing tube in the bladder through the urethra and then it moves to the urine collecting part of the kidney through the ureter. 

This scope sees the kidney stone to either break it, blast it or evaporate it into small pieces using an ultrasound probe or the laser probe. 

Also, the doctors can manually remove the kidney stone using forceps. To improve the drainage and on doctor’s advice, a stent can be inserted as well. 

Once the treatment is successful enough in removing the large stones, all the small kidney stones are taken off through the stone baskets. 

The process uses general anesthesia and is performed under the guidance of a specialist or urologist with expertise in RIRS.


Risks of RIRS

  • Fever
  • Flank pain
  • Urinary infection
  • Transient hematuria
  • Ureteral pelvicalyceal abrasion
  • Fornix rupture
  • Ureter avulsion
  • Bleeding
  • Sepsis
  • Trauma to kidneys 

Differences between PCNL and RIRS

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery(RIRS)
PCNL treatment is usually preferred by the patients housing large kidney stones (typically >2 cm)RIRS is more effective in removing small-medium sized kidney stones (typically <2 cm) It takes several RIRS treatment sessions for breaking a stone larger than 2cm.
The patients who undergo PCNL treatment take a lot of recovery timeThe recovery time is less in RIRS
The chances of recurrence of kidney stones is lesser in case the patient selects PCNL The recurrence chances are comparatively higher in RIRS after the first session.
Most studies suggest that PCNL has a higher probability of postoperative complications such as blood transfusion, fever rates.RIRS has less or no postoperative complications.
The patients often suffer from the dropping of haemoglobin levels after undergoing PCNL treatment. The drop of haemoglobin level is very less in the RIRS procedure.
The patient needs to stay for 2-3 days in the hospital.RIRS requires a shorter period of hospital stay that ranges from a few hours to a day.
PCNL is more effective in removing the hard and brittle kidney stones.Patients may require more than one RIRS session to remove the hard and brittle stones.
Patients suffering from any health issues may not consider PCNL a best treatment solution.RIRS is more successful in removing kidney stones if the patient suffers from obesity, musculoskeletal deformities, bleeding diathesis, and in cases of unsuccessful ESWL treatment previously. 
PCNL may lead to the development of sepsis in some cases.There is no such possibility of sepsis development in RIRS.

Though both the above treatments help remove the kidney stones, yet the patients must be familiar with the procedures. Also, RIRS conducted with a holmium laser acts as an alternative to PCNL only in selected patients housing large-sized renal stones. 

Depending on the severity, kidney size, density, location, the doctors will suggest the best process. One must consult the doctor as soon as possible if he suffers from any symptoms of kidney stones. 

RIRS and PCNL are the best procedures in their ways and demolish the chance of recurrence if performed under the supervision of expert urologists. 

Choose Ayu Health

Ayu Health is India’s most trusted network of hospitals. Our in-house kidney stone experts are among the best in their field and will suggest the most optimal kidney stone treatment (surgical or non-surgical) for the patients depending upon their case.

Ayu Health hospitals offer all advanced and effective Kidney removal treatments. We not only have a skilful doctor’s team but also carry mandatory certifications from the government authorities. NABH, India’s premier hospital accreditation authority, recognises all of Ayu Health hospitals.

Ayu Health offers 100% fixed price packages for all surgical procedures, which means patients can focus solely on recovering, and not a rising bill. Ayu Health hospitals also provide patients with a dedicated Ayu Mitra who provides patients any type of assistance they need within the hospital, ranging from registration to insurance documentation.

If you are looking for a leading doctor who can treat and perform effective kidney removal treatment and suggest the best methods to get the procedure just right for you in India, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at https://ayu.health/bangalore/surgery/Kidney-Stone-10.

Kidney Stones – Treatments, and why you shouldn’t delay a surgery

What are Kidney Stones?

Kidney Stones, also known as renal calculi, are the hard masses of salts and minerals detected in the kidney. Kidney Stones form when the dissolved salts and minerals are present in very high volumes in the urine. Though the stones form in the kidney, yet they can travel to other parts of the urinary tract causing severe problems.

Kidney Stones vary in sizes and can be as small as a dot or as big as the entire kidney. The presence of stones in the urinary bladder is of not much problem as they can pass through the urine itself. The removal of stone through urine may be painful, but not as severe if it is present in some other body parts. 

Depending on the size and type, kidney stones can be easily removed via urine and cause no permanent damage. But there are cases when patients suffer a lot from the pain because of the large size of stones, which can often require a surgical intervention.


Types of Stones that can be treated by Medication

Before we get into surgeries, let’s first understand what type of stones can be cured by simply ingesting some pills (recommended by a doctor) and lifestyle changes.

Certain kind of kidney stones can be dissolved and get passed through the urethra during urine passage. Most of the doctors believe that kidney stones that are less than 10 mm in diameter have high chances of passing through the urinary tract. But such stones require pain relief treatment. 

The pain can become so severe that patients may require hospitalisation.  For controlling such pain, doctors recommend the patient with medications such as ibuprofen, ketorolac and narcotic. Other types of medications prescribed are for the speedy passage of kidney stones.

Most of the people housing the calcium stones must have the intake of enough fluid for avoiding any urinary infection and must opt for medications after the consultation with the doctor.

People suffering from the uric acid stones can opt for the medication to reduce the pain and nullify the chance of having another uric acid stone.


Why should you consider an immediate treatment for Kidney Stones?

Patients suffering from any of the symptoms must consult the doctor as soon as possible to prevent chronic kidney diseases. All the kidney stones, whether large or small in size, will ultimately result in chronic infections and blockage of the ureters. 

This problem usually causes a lot of suffering for the patient as he undergoes unbearable pain in the lower abdomen, nausea, bleeding that may lead to an incurable condition. The delay can cause the following chronic problems:

  • Any delay in the treatment of kidney stones can damage the entire kidney.
  • Those who have a kidney stone have a 50% probability of housing a second stone if there is any sort of delay in treatment.
  • Neglecting kidney stones can cause chronic kidney disease and also other health problems like Anemia
  • Migration of the stone from kidney to the bladder can block the urine passage that leads to backing up of the urine back to kidney causing infection and contamination.
  • If left untreated, kidney stones can cause bleeding in excess from the urine.
  • The loss of renal function can take place due to pressure on filtering units of kidney.

Your delay of sometime can lead to regret of lifetime. To avoid any regrets, please consult the doctor as soon as possible to avoid the above problems. 

Surgical Procedures to get rid of kidney stones

While doctors try to get kidney stones treated through medicine, in some cases there might arise a need to consider a surgical procedure. 

Now we know that the mere mention of the word “surgery” can be enough to cause anxiety among a lot of patients. However, it’s important to realize that in some cases, a surgery is the best possible option for nullifying the formation of another stone and worse, kidney damage. As they often say, a stitch in time saves nine.

Moreover, most advanced surgical procedures for removing kidney stones are quite non-complex and are mostly day procedures (same day discharge). Here’s a brief look at some of the procedures undertaken for addressing kidney stones.

Shockwave Lithotripsy (SWL)

SWL is very useful in getting rid of the stones from Kidney and ureter and is the most favoured Surgery for small to medium-sized kidney stones. 

The treatment is the outpatient procedure, which uses anaesthesia in which the doctor blasts the kidney stones into smaller crystals. 

The patients usually prefer this process because the smaller pieces then easily pass through the urine, causing not much pain and further damage.

Advantages of Shockwave Lithotripsy (SWL)

  • Minimal postoperative discomfort
  • No incisions or invasive procedures
  • The excellent success rate for most small- to medium-sized stones
  • Outpatient procedure
  • Easy and fast scheduling

Ureteroscopy and Laser Lithotripsy

This surgical method is usually a preferred choice of patients housing small to medium stones in any part. The procedure completes in a time interval of a day and has the fastest possible  recovery. 

The surgery starts under general anaesthesia by inserting a small tube into the bladder through the urinary opening. From there, it goes up to the ureter and drains the urine from the Kidney to the bladder. After finding the exact location of stones, a laser is targeted on them to break them into grains crystals. 

These tiny pieces easily get extracted through normal urine flow.  Doctors place a small tube referred to as a stent in the Kidney for the draining purpose. The doctors remove this stent after three days without any anaesthesia and in some hours.

Advantages of Ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy

  • Can be performed without stopping the blood-thinning medication
  • No incisions
  • Outpatient procedure
  • Excellent results for the removal of small to medium-sized kidney stones
  • Versatility and capability of treating some Kidney stones that won’t break with SWL
  • Easy and fast scheduling

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

Doctors perform this simple treatment to get rid of very complex and large kidney stones. PCNL is also a good option for those patients that are housing a large number of small Kidney stones. 

The process is considered as the inpatient procedure as it has the requirement of getting hospitalized for 1-2 days, depending on the case profile.

Performed under the supervision of urologist and radiologist, PCNL is an invasive treatment that involves the creation of a channel in the drainage system of the Kidney using the small incision in the back. 

The second steps include the usage of specialized equipment to shatter the stones for plucking them out of the Kidney. The doctors end the process by leaving a drainage tube in the Kidney temporarily.

Advantages of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

  • Best for getting rid of stones completely with one procedure
  • Effective and very safe

Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)

This treatment for removing the kidney stone uses a viewing tube known as fiberoptic endoscope. 

The endoscope is placed into the bladder through the urethra and then enters the urine collecting part of the kidney through the ureter. It is a very simple procedure that can be done under general anesthesia.

Advantages of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)

  • Faster Recovery
  • Eliminates the prolonged pain after surgery
  • Quickest treatment to get rid of kidney stones

Ultimately, the choice of procedure is made by your doctor based on a variety of conditions, ranging from the type and size of stones, to other pre-existing conditions of the patient.

Here is a short video of Dr. Virender Dhankar, Urologist & Kidney Transplant Surgeon talking about the risks of delaying the treatment

Delaying kidney stone treatment can become critical. Visit your doctor and get your treatment at an early stage

Act Now, Choose Ayu Health

Ayu Health is India’s most trusted network of hospitals. Our in-house kidney stone experts are among the best in their field and will suggest the most optimal kidney stone treatment (surgical or non-surgical) for the patients depending upon their case.

Ayu Health hospitals offer all advanced and effective Kidney removal treatments. We not only have a skilful doctor’s team but also carry mandatory certifications from the government authorities. NABH, India’s premier hospital accreditation authority, recognizes all the AyuHealth hospitals.

Ayu Health offers 100% fixed price packages for all surgical procedures, which means patients can focus solely on recovering, and not a rising bill. Ayu Health hospitals also provide patients with a dedicated Ayu Mitra who provides patients any type of assistance they need within the hospital, ranging from registration to insurance documentation.

If you are looking for a leading doctor who can treat and perform effective kidney removal treatment and suggest the best methods to get the procedure just right for you in India, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at https://ayu.health/bangalore/surgery/Kidney-Stone-10.

All you need to know about Kidney Stones: Types, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

All of us wish to stay away from some certain diseases. Kidney stones are among the top in that list, and can be quite painful in some cases. Kidney stones can be treated with proper medication and by hydrating yourself throughout which can enable stones to pass through urine. In very rare cases, surgery is required.

This article will talk about the types of kidney stones a person can have and available diagnosis and treatments.

Kidney stones are majorly caused when the crystals in the urine accumulate inside an organ instead of draining out. Its size can vary from the size of a sand grain to the size of a green pea. 

Types of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones mainly comprise of four types:

  1. Calcium Stones
  2. Struvite Stones
  3. Cystine Stones
  4. Uric Acid Stones

Calcium stones are the most common among Indians. Calcium stones are further made up of two types i.e., Calcium Oxalate and Calcium Phosphate. The former type is formed when the body excretes excess calcium and the latter one is formed due to the consumption of acidic foods i.e. when the pH level of the urine rises.

On the other hand, Struvite stones are not so common. Struvite stones are majorly found in women and are formed due to Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Often, these types of stones are very painful as they grow large quite fast without any symptoms. However, these stones can be treated by treating the root of stone i.e., Urinary Tract Infection.

Cystine stones are ] formed due to the accumulation of cystine – a naturally formed compound in your body. Although rare and usually small in size, these stones can occur in both males and females. Cystine stones are formed due to your genetics and heredity disorders.

If your water intake is lower than normal, then you may develop Uric acid stones. As the name suggests, this stone is formed when the urine becomes acidic. If you are a fan of consuming non-vegetarian diet, especially meats, fish, and shellfish, then you are at a greater potential to attain Uric acid stones. 

Causes of Kidney Stones

There is no one specific cause, but several causes of kidney stones formation in your body.  Major reasons for kidney stones are:

Water deficiency

Lack of water in the body is one of the most significant causes of kidney stone. When a person doesn’t consume the recommended amount of water i.e., 7-10 glasses of water a day, then the risk of kidney stones increases. 

Sometimes, people, who are exposed to extreme heat or do extreme workouts without drinking enough water can also be at risk of kidney stones due to higher than usual water loss from their body. 

Unhealthy Diet

Oxalate contributes to 80% of the kidney stones because of its abundance in many kinds of foods. Limiting Oxalate-rich diet like potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, spinach etc. can limit the odds of suffering from kidney stones.

Heredity Problems

If your immediate family members had kidney stones, then you’re much likely to develop another. However, prevention can diminish the risks of developing a stone.

Other Medical conditions

Obesity, Diabetes, consuming stone developing medications can elevate your risk to form a kidney stone. Other medical conditions include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, urinary tract infections and certain medications.

You should consult a doctor for the prevention methods and the drugs you consume.

Diagnosis for Kidney Stones

There are three types of tests available for diagnosing kidney stones. You must undergo these tests if your doctor suggests you.

Imaging

In this process, the doctor can see the area of kidney stone and will be able to suggest effective treatments and medications. There are two types of imaging used in diagnosing:

  1. Ultrasound: This is the most common type of diagnosis in India as it is very effective in many cases. Ultrasound uses sound waves to image the inside area of your organs to find any abnormalities or foreign materials.
  1. CT Scan: This is an advanced X-ray process which can create images from different angles and produces meticulous images of the organs that a normal X-ray fails to do.

Blood test

This test is carried out to examine composition of oxalate, uric acid, calcium or any other substance in your blood. The test can inform  the doctor for suggesting medications, and treatments. 

Urine test

A urine test is performed to know the statistics of compounds in your body which can either be stone-forming or stone-preventing. If excessive stone-forming or less stone-preventing compounds are found, then the doctors can help you to treat it efficiently.

Treatment for Kidney Stones

Medicines

Medicines are used when a doctor feels the stones aren’t draining out with excessive liquid consumption or change in the diet. Most patients are able to get treated for their kidney stone troubles through proper medication. 

Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

This procedure involves the breakdown of stone with high-frequency sound which is why it is also known as extracorporeal SWL. This procedure is effective for both small and medium stones. It is the least risky and doesn’t require any kind of surgery.

Ureteroscopy

In this process, doctors generally use a scope which is inserted from the urethra to the bladder and ureter significantly. If the stone is small, the surgeon will remove it through a tiny basket and if the stone is comparatively big, a laser is attached to the scope and stone is broken down into pieces.

Surgery

Your doctors will perform surgery when the pain is unbearable, stones are too large or are causing obstruction in the urinating path. Surgeries are used to remove stones which cannot be removed by any other treatments. 

There are very rare cases when a patient will need to undergo surgery to treat Kidney stones. Patients can get rid of stones with proper medication or some procedures mentioned above.

How can Ayu Health help?

We are India’s most trusted network of high-quality hospitals, and we have a team of pre-eminent urologists. We have successfully diagnosed and treated thousands of patients suffering from kidney stones.

Ayu Health hospitals offer all modern treatments for kidney stone. Our highly trained urologists specialize in Lithotripsy, Ureteroscopy, and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy procedures. New age treatments (e.g., Laser RIRS) are encouraged wherever applicable.

For all procedures, Ayu Health offers fixed price packages which are communicated before admission. These include all typical charges associated with surgery. Our intent is for you to focus on getting better, not hidden costs.

ChargesAyu HealthOthers
Hospital Admission / Registration ChargeYesNo
Operation Theater ChargesYesYes
Surgery Charges (includes surgeon fees, anaesthetist fees)YesYes
All pre-surgery testsYesNo
Hospital Stay beyond standard durationYesNo
Drugs consumed during the hospital stayYesYes
Zero additional charges at the time of dischargeYesNo
Ayu Health offers a fixed price package for all surgical procedures

If you are looking for a leading urologist who can treat kidney stones, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at https://ayu.health/bangalore/speciality/Urology-3 to learn more.